According to a further aspect of the present invention, in a chemical process there is provided as a source of an anion which participates in the process an adduct hereinbefore defined of a particulate support material with a hygroscopic salt, Stabilisation salts salt being coated on the support and thereby being rendered less hygroscopic.
A minority of surface hydroxyl groups in the support material may, for example, exchange with fluoride ions during preparation of fluoride adducts. Electrical Stabilization of Clayey Soils Electrical stabilization of clayey soils is done by method known as electro-osmosis.
Soil Stabilization with Cement The soil stabilized with cement is known as soil cement. Plasticity index of highly plastic soils are reduced by the addition of lime with soil.
Chemical Stabilization of Soil Calcium chloride being hygroscopic and deliquescent is used as a water retentive additive in mechanically stabilized soil bases Stabilisation salts surfacing.
Reactions in which the adduct of the present invention may find application as a catalyst include fluorination, for example fluorine replacement of chlorine or bromine in the nucleus of an aromatic compound e. There is an increase in the optimum water content and a decrease in the maximum compacted density and he strength and durability of soil increases.
It is particularly preferred that the pore size be at least 20 A when the cation is a tetra-alkyl ammonium or tetra-aryl ammonium salt especially when the support material is silica.
The vapor pressure gets lowered, surface tension increases and rate of evaporation decreases.
The slurry becomes warm on shaking. The flask is then transferred to a rotary evaporator and the water is removed, ml of methanol is added and the evaporation continued. The support material present in the adduct may in some cases comprise, in addition to groups bonded to the salt, other groups produced for example by exchange of surface groups originally present in the support material with salt anions during preparation of the adduct.
Use of the present adduct allows many such reactions to proceed at comparable rates although the anion source is disposed as a separate solid phase from the reactants and substrates disposed in another, e.
Description This is a continuation of application Ser. Sodium silicate is yet another chemical used for this purpose in combination with other chemicals such as calcium chloride, polymers, chrome lignin, alkyl chlorosilanes, siliconites, amines and quarternary ammonium salts, sodium hexametaphosphate, phosphoric acid combined with a wetting agent.
Sandy soils can also be stabilized with these combinations. Many salts such as fluorides which find application as catalysts for example are highly hygroscopic. The present invention also includes within its scope a method of rendering a hygroscopic salt as hereinbefore defined less hygroscopic, which comprises treating the salt with a particulate support material so that an adduct is formed between the support material and the salt.
In the latter case the substrate is generally disposed in a liquid phase and the catalyst is present as a separate solid phase.Soil Stabilization Methods with Different Materials Soil stabilization with cement, bitumen, lime, chemical stabilization,geotextile, grouting etc.
are discussed. It is a method of improving soil properties by blending and mixing other materials. Stabilization: When adequate quantities of lime and water are added, the pH of the soil quickly increases to abovewhich enables the clay particles to break down.
The other significant effects of cement-soil stabilization is reduction in shrinkage and swell potential, increase in strength, elastic modulus, and resistance against the effect of moisture, freeze, and thaw. Stabilisation of Silty Clay Soil using Chloride Compounds Journal of Engineering Science and Technology APRILVol.
2(1) 4. Results and Discussion Compaction test The relation between dry density and moisture content for different salts (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2) and different moisture percentages (2%, 4%, 8%) are plotted in.
method of soil stabilization is determined by the amount of stabilization required and the conditions encountered on the project. An accurate soil description and classification is essential for the selecting the correct materials and procedures.
Properties of salts Salts are usually solid crystals with a relatively high melting point.
The research aims to investigate the effect of adding chloride salts including (NaCl, MgCl 2, and CaCl 2) on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Three amount percentage of salt (2%, 4%, and 8%) were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, atterberg limits, and unconfined compressive strength.Download