This may be putting it mildly. However, this paper will also be dedicated to an exploration of the historical context of the conflict which is necessary to fully understand the nature of and reasons behind the series of relationships that have formed, particularly those pertaining to the United States.
The book is divided into three sections of three chapters each. By there were approximatelyrefugees living in a total of 22 camps administered by the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic Hodges, ; Zunes,and by the number was estimated atUNHCR, The Algerian authorities joined the Polisario Front with weapons and equipment, and displaced The impact of the western sahara conflict camps located in a desert plateau called Hamada, near the Algerian town of Tindouf, to accommodate the Saharawis fleeing the Moroccan Army.
This proposal currently enjoys the implicit consent of France, the United States and Spain, regardless of UN resolutions that refute any preconditions for the current negotiations.
Morocco has repeatedly called on the Algerian authorities to reopen the border, but Algiers has decided that reopening the border without a comprehensive agreement, which would include the settlement of the conflict in Western Sahara, would be useless, no matter the cost of a non-integrated Maghrib.
The conflict has increased even more as younger generations of Sahrawis have resorted to active, continued peaceful resistance, which has succeeded in alerting the international community on human rights issues.
This strategy, by the new UN mediator, Christopher Ross, was a chance for finding a political solution to the Western Sahara issue. Following the events of September 11th, the Maghreb has become an increasingly important area of interest for Western countries seeking to protect themselves and combat the forces of terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism.
The question has poisoned relations between Algeria, the main sponsor of Western Saharan self-determination, and Morocco, which claims the territory it has illegally occupied since In addition, the dispute has generated other consequences. The Plan provided that the Saharan people would manage democratically their own affairs, they would have the financial resources needed to develop the region in all areas and participate actively in the economic, social and cultural life of Morocco.
In April, the U. The talks between the Moroccan government and the Polisario Front were considered the first direct negotiations in seven years between the two parties, and hailed as a landmark in the peace process.
The Spanish Referendum was postponed pending the results of the report. Having originally agreed to a ceasefire and the validity of the Spanish referendum in determining the eligibility of voters for the referendum, Morocco has reneged on both of these commitments, largely as a result of the lack of serious pressure it has faced from its allies and international bodies such as the United Nations.
With respect to the military front, it is an obvious fact that a conflict cannot continue and a war cannot be waged without weapons. The alleged technical difficulties to ensure a referendum have been mere pretext to allow Morocco to continue its colonisation of the territory.
Through its veto power at the United Nations the United States has time and again blocked resolutions that would punish or create methods of imposing UN resolutions upon Morocco Ohaegbulam, These three premises form the basis of the context in which the remainder of the conflict has played out and allude to the argument that the actions of Morocco concerning the status of Western Sahara have been unwarranted and unjust.
While Africa gradually became independent from the Europeans, Western Sahara underwent domestic colonization. While the interests and policies of states such as Spain, Algeria and France will be examined, the policies upon which this paper will primarily focus are the policies of the state whose role has, as a result of its global hegemony, been of greatest importance in the Western Sahara conflict — the United States.
The most likely candidate for support for Sahrawis, Amazigh activists in the Spanish-colonized North, have not as yet demonstrated any ties of solidarity" p. The Polisario suggestion of the census conducted by the Spanish government was blocked by Morocco, which had moved as many assettlers into the Southern Provinces since that census took place.
Baker laid out four options before the Security Council, calling on them to decide on which one the United Nations was willing to pursue: In addition, Morocco has proved to be a valuable ally to the United States with respect to the Middle East; its government has adopted a positive stance regarding the state of Israel and has consistently supported peaceful negotiations throughout the duration of the Arab-Israeli dispute.
While all four states have been making extraordinary profits from such sales, there has been no shortage of weapons and death along the border between Morocco and Western Sahara.
As of [update]negotiations over the terms of any potential referendum have not resulted in any substantive action. Moroccan initiative and Manhasset negotiations[ edit ] Main articles: The main interest of Algeria is to prevent Morocco — embarked on a policy of territorial expansion, especially in this area that provides phosphates and fossil materials — from having another outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.
UN Peacekeeping in the Western Sahara. Before long, however, they began to see it as an accessory to occupation p. The Green March was announced shortly after this decision was made public.
United by the fight against French colonialism, Morocco and Algeria became political and diplomat rivals after their respective independence. Arabic speakers will be pleased with the consistency in transliteration a combination of internationally recognized conventions, most-common spelling forms and standardized transliterationespecially given that French, Spanish and English-based transliterations are all common in this area and can be as different as Moroccan dialect is from Hassaniyyah spoken in the Western Sahara.Western Sahara conflict impacts Morocco World Cup bid FILE - In this Saturday, Nov.
7, file photo, Morocco's King Mohammed VI, right, listens to the national anthem in Laayoune, the. As this conflict receives limited international attention, the recent book Western Sahara: War, Nationalism and Conflict Irresolution is a welcome addition to the literature on both the region and conflict studies.
Co-authored by Stephen Zunes, chair of the University of San Francisco Middle Eastern Studies program and an authoritative voice on.
In the context of the Western Sahara conflict it is therefore easy to imagine how American relations with Morocco – “a guarantor of US and Western presence in the area – [have overridden] any other regional concerns” (Layachi, 29). What's barely talked about is the impact of a territorial conflict that is impeding Morocco's bid.
That stance is shared by Algeria, which plans to vote for Morocco despite backing the Polisario as a key player in the Western Sahara conflict. ”FIFA has conducted an evaluation of Morocco’s application, but has completely ignored the Western Sahara case,” the Norwegian Support.
The issue of Western Sahara has been suspended between the winds of war and vain attempts of dialogue. Sincethis dispute has opposed the Alawite Kingdom to the Polisario Front, backed by Algeria, and now weighs on international and regional levels.Download